ASCP Skin Deep

SEPTEMBER | OCTOBER 2021

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Listen to the ASCP Esty Talk podcast at ascpskincare.com/podcasts 59 UP TO 90 PERCENT OF WOMEN may have some form of cellulite, according to the American Journal of Clinical Dermatology. 1 Cellulite is persistent subcutaneous fat that causes dimpling of the skin, a.k.a. "orange peel" skin, especially on the thighs, hips, stomach, and arms. Cellulite differs from obesity in that obesity increases the size and number of fat cells with no specific location, while cellulite can result from several factors in very specific areas. 2 Cellulite appears to result from an interaction between the connective tissue (in the dermatological layer below the surface of the skin) and the layer of fat just below it. It is affected by the circulatory and lymphatic systems of the body, which work together to control cell oxygenation, digestion, nutrient absorption, and the elimination of toxins and waste. These systems affect the formation of adipocytes (also known as lipocytes or fat cells) and are essential for energy and heat regulation of the human body. Adipocytes cells are composed of either white or brown adipose tissue. White adipose tissue is responsible for heat insulation, mechanical cushioning, and a source of energy. Brown adipose tissue is essential in heat regulation. The subcutaneous layer of the skin consists of adipocytes and a fibrous connective tissue called septa. In cellulite formation, subcutaneous adipocytes are pushed upward, and septa are pulled downward. This is caused by many factors, including fluctuating estrogen hormonal levels, oxidative stress, and inflammation, which may promote fluid retention by restricting and changing vascular and lymphatic drainage, resulting in edema. Causes and risk factors for cellulite can also include gender, genetic factors, diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, improper hydration, and UVA and UVB exposure. The appearance of cellulite is more prevalent in women due to the composition of the female skin structure. As a result of the interaction between the connective tissue in the dermatological layer (that lies below the surface of the skin) and the layer of fat that is just below it, women's fat cells and connective tissue are arranged vertically while men's have a crisscross structure. REDUCING THE SIGNS OF CELLULITE Many ingredients can help diminish the appearance of cellulite, including seaweeds, cocoa butter, extracts, and roots. Research has found that seaweeds contain high levels of electrolytes, such as sodium, magnesium, potassium, and iodine, 3 and are high in vitamins, amino acids, and antioxidants, which all smooth the skin's appearance. These electrolytes interact with each other, and it is in this balance that healthy bodily function is created. 4 Internally, this includes balancing the amount of water and body acid (or pH level), helping move nutrients into the cells and wastes out, and maintaining proper large organ function (heart, brain, nerves, and muscles). Cocoa seed butter is known for its high emollient properties and is great at moisturizing to prevent dry skin. It also contains antioxidants known to help reduce the visible effects of free radicals. Research is also showing results with extracts and roots. A biopolymer complex formed from kappaphycus alvarezii extract and caesalpinia spinosa fruit extract display proven efficacy in providing a visibly lifting and smoothing effect in previous studies. Bupleurum falcatum root, also known as ChaiHU, is an ancient herb that has been used in China for thousands of years for its anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, and immunomodulatory effects. 5 And caffeine, an extract of the coffee plant, is known to help visibly firm the surface layers of the skin. 6 Body treatments can be an important part of your client's skin care program; they help reduce stress while decreasing the appearance of cellulite and restoring the important skin barrier. The following treatment can be used both in the summer and in the colder months, depending on the clients' hot or cold preferences. Incorporate a few body treatments into your menu now to see your business and your clients benefit for years to come. Notes 1. Stefanie Luebberding, Nils Krueger, and Neil S. Sadick, "Cellulite: An Evidence-Based Review," American Journal of Clinical Dermatology 16, no. 4 (August 2015): 243–56, https://doi.org/10.1007/s40257-015-0129-5. 2. V. Leroy Young and Barry E. DiBernardo, "Comparison of Cellulite Severity Scales and Imaging Methods," Aesthetic Surgery Journal 41, no. 6 (June 2021): NP521–NP537, https://doi.org/10.1093/asj/sjaa226. 3. Ana R. Circuncisão et al., "Minerals from Macroalgae Origin: Health Benefits and Risks for Consumers," Marine Drugs 16, no. 11 (November 2018): 400, https://doi.org/10.3390/md16110400. 4. Adem Felman, "Everything You Need to Know About Electrolytes," Medical News Today Newsletter, November 20, 2017, www. medicalnewstoday.com/articles/153188#_noHeaderPrefixedContent. 5. Fude Yang et al., "Radix Bupleuri: A Review of Traditional Uses, Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology," BioMed Research International (May 2017): 7597596, https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/7597596. 6. Sang-Young Byun et al., "Efficacy of Slimming Cream Containing 3.5% Water-Soluble Caffeine and Xanthenes for the Treatment of Cellulite: Clinical Study and Literature Review," Annals of Dermatology 27, no. 3 (June 2015): 243–49, https://doi.org/10.5021/ad.2015.27.3.243. Why cellulite develops and how seaweed extracts can treat it by Lydia Sarfati

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